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Urologic Diseases

Urologic disease can involve congenital or acquired dysfunction of the urinary system.

Kidney diseases are normally investigated and treated by nephrologists, while the specialty of urology deals with problems in the other organs

Diseases of other bodily systems also have a direct effect on urogenital function. For instance it has been shown that protein released by the kidneys in diabetes mellitus sensitises the kidney to the damaging effects of hypertension.

Diabetes also can have a direct effect in urination due to peripheral neuropathies which occur in some individuals with poorly controlled diabetics.

Kidney disease

Renal failure is defined by functional impairment of the kidney. Renal failure can be acute or chronic, and can be further broken down into categories of pre-renal, intrinsic renal and post-renal.

Pre-renal failure refers to impairment of supply of blood to the functional nephrons including renal artery stenosis. Intrinsic renal diseases are the classic diseases of the kidney including drug toxicity and nephritis. Post-renal failure is outlet obstruction after the kidney, such as a kidney stone or prostatic bladder outlet obstruction. Renal failure may require medication, dietary and lifestyle modification and dialysis.

Primary renal cell carcinomas as well as metastatic cancers can affect the kidney.

Non-renal urinary tract disease

The causes of diseases of the body are common to the urinary tract. Structural and or traumatic change can lead to hemorrhage, functional blockage or inflammation. Colonisation by bacteria, protozoa or fungi can cause infection. Uncontrolled cell growth can cause neoplasia. For example:

  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs), interstitial cystitis
  • Incontinence (involuntary loss of urine), benign prostatic hyperplasia (where the prostate overgrows), prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate).
  • Transitional cell carcinoma (bladder cancer), renal cell carcinoma (kidney cancer), and prostate cancer are examples of neoplasms affecting the urinary system.

The term "uropathy" refers to a disease of the urinary tract, while "nephropathy" refers to a disease of the kidney.